Water quality management for coastal aquaculture

Water quality management for coastal aquaculture

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The book describe the fundamental aspects water resources and water quality management, and environmental problems related to acquaculture in the Coastal related to aquaculture in the coastal areas. It addresses to the surface and ground water resources and their characteristics, in general and inherent in the coastal water environment, and describes the coastal environment with ecological divisions and coastal regulation Zones. Water resource use is highlighted mainly in coastal fisheries and aquaculture, and also in multiple uses for agriculture, forestry and waste disposal. Impacts of resource use on the coastal environment with potential and specific cases have been discussed. The book focuses on water quality aspects with the basic management issues such as physico-chemical, biophysical and biological parmeters and their interactions on the dynamics of the systems in a water body. On water quality management included are the topics under pond water treatment for control and management of aquatic environment for culture practices, and on farm effluent treatment for reduction of environmental impact in the surrounding water bodies. Related numerical problems have been given as examples in most of the chapters, as well as few sample questions for students work. The content of the book extends our theoretical understanding of water resource and water quality management, and also provides how-to or practical advice for professionals in the aquaculture industry. Contents Chapter 1: Water and Land Resource Use, Environmental Impact from Agriculture and Aquaculture, Food Production and Fisheries, Perspective of Water Quality Management in Aquaculture; Part I: Water Resources for coastal Aquaculture; Chapter 2: Water Resources, Sources of Water, Surface Water, Ponds, Lakes and Reservoirs, Streams and Rivers, Sea or Saltwater, Ground Water, Coastal Environment, Coastal Areas and Zones, Ecological Divisions, Marine Environment, Rocky Shore, Sandy and Muddy Shores, Brackish Water or Estuarine Environment, Marshes and Mangroves, Coastal Regulation Zone, Characteristics of Water Resources, Environmental Characteristics of Coastal Water, Carrying Capacity and Standing Crop, Primary Productivity and Food Chain, Principles Governing the Coastal Water Ecosystem, Aquatic Biodiversity, Ecological Factors, General Characteristics of Source Water, Water Temperature and Circulation, Dissolved Oxygen Content, pH and Carbon Dioxide, Nutrients and Organic Substances, Plant and Animal Community, Ground Water Characteristics, Summary; Chapter 3: Water Resource Use in Coastal Area; Coastal Fisheries, Types of Fisheries, Inland Capture Fisheries, Marine Fisheries, Coastal Aquaculture, Types of Aquaculture Production System, Species Cultured in Coastal Waters, Operation of Coastal Aquaculture Farms, Multiple Use of Coastal Resources, Coastal Agriculture, Constraints Affecting Coastal Agriculture, Crop Selection for Salt-affected Soils, Coastal Forestry, Types of Coastal Forests, Socio-economic Values of Coastal Forests, Special Characteristics of Coastal Forestry, Waste Disposal and Pollution in Coastal Areas, Sources of Pollution, Types of Contaminants and Pollutants, Major Examples of Coastal Pollution; Chapter 4: Impact of Coastal Resource Use on the Environment, Impacts on Coastal Environment, Alterations and Destruction of Habitats, Effects of marine Pollution on Human Health, Hypernutrification and Eutrophication, Decline of Fish Stocks and Other Renewable Resources, Changes in Sediment Flows, Potential and Specific Cases of Impacts, Agricultural Activities, Capture Fisheries and Coastal Aquaculture Activities, Multiple Activities, Integrated Ecosystem Approch for Resource Use References, Part II: Water Quality; Chapter 5: Water Quality Parameters, Classification of Water Quality Parameters, Dissolved Oxygen, Primary Productivity and Nutrients, Temperature, Salinity, Suspended Solids, pH Alkalinity and Hardness, Dissolved Gases, Biological Parameters, Fundamental Principles, Equilibrium Relationships, Some Thermodynamic Concepts of Equilibria, Ionic Equilibrium in Water, Ionization of Acid and Bases, Solubility Relationship, Process Kinetics, Rate of a Chemical Reaction, Kinetic Models of Homogeneous Reactions, Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate, Biological Reaction Systems, Kinetics of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions, Kinetics of Microbial Growth; Chapter 6: Aquaculture Pond Ecosystem, Dynamics of Nutrientsin Pond Ecosystem, Nitrogen Cycle, Phosphors Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen in Pond Water, Biological Processes, Photosynthetic Oxygen Production, Oxygen Requirments of Fish, Diurnal Changes of Oxygen Concentration in Ponds, Diffusional Oxygen Transfer by Natural Aeration, DO Concentration Balance in pond Water during Culture, Channel Catfish Pond, Trout Pond, warm water Fish, Dynamics of Fertilized Pond, Effects of Fertilization on Pond Dynamics, Changes in Acidity due to Nitrogen Fertilizer, Effects of Fertilization on Phosphorus Cycle, Plants and Invertebrates, Dynamics of Limed Pond, Effects of Liming on Pond Dynamics, Increase in Total Alklinity, Increase in Concentration of Total Avilable Carbon Dioxide, Increase in Total Hardness, Effect on Activity of Microorganisms, Increase in the Avilability of Mud Phosphate, Effects of Liming on Plankton and Invertebrates, Dynamics of Fed Pond, Types of Feeding and Feeding Optinons, Supplementry Diet Feeding, Complete Diet Feeding, Feed Conversion, Utilization and Waste Production, Material Balance of Feed Utilization, Nutrients and Solids Budget, Weste Components, COD Balance, Waste Production from Fertilization, Residues of Chemicals, Effects of Wastes on Culture Environment, Relationship of Water Quality With Feeding Rate References, Part III: Water Quality Management; Chapter 7: Introduction, Culture Systems, Types of Culture Systems, Open System, Semi-closed System, Basic Approach of Closed System, Treatment Methods, Pond Management Methods, Recirculating Methods; Chapter 8: Fertilization of Ponds, Fertilizers, Types, Properties and Sources of Fertilizers, Types and Sources, Properies, Requirment of Fertillizers, Principle, General Guidelines for Fertilzer Requirment, Application of Fertilizers, Types of Fertilizers, Application Rate, Method of Fertilizder Application, Platform Method, Nylon Cloth or Bag Method, Application of Liquid Fertilizers, Organic Manures, Methods, Manure Application through Integrated Farming of Livestock; Chapter 9: Liming of Ponds, Lime Requirment and Liming Rate, Calculation of Liming Rate, Technique Employed on Agricultural Crop, Technique Based on Exchange Acidity of Soil, Liming Materials, Methods of Application, Liming of Acid-sulphate Soils; Chapter 10: Aeration, Aeration Fundamentals, Theory of Oxygen Transfer, Factors Affecting Volumetric Oxygen Transfer Coefficient (k a), Evaluation of k a by Aeration Experiment, Measurment of DO, Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate and Aeration Efficiency, Rating of Aeration Systems under Field Conditions, Aeration Systems, Types of Aerators, Classification, Surface Aerators, Diffused Air System, Gravity, Aerators, Types of Aeration, Emergency Aeration, Supplemental or Continuous Aeration, Aeration to Prevent Thermal and Oxygen Stratification, Aeration of Source Water, Comparative Performance of Various Aerators, Aeration Rate and Efficiency, Oxygen Saturation and Oxygen Transfer, Fish Production, Aeration Process and Aerator Design, Computation of Oxygen Demand and Supplemental Aeration Requirement, Average Daily Oxygen Demand, Maximum Daily Oxygen Demand, Oxygen Supplied by Water Flow, Supplemental Oxygen Demand, Surface Aerator Design, Practical Approach, Simulation Approach; Chapter 11: Feed Management, Feeding Options, Pond Fertilization and Supplemental Feeding, Feed Ingredients, Supplementry Feeds, Complete Diet Feeding, Types of Feed, Formulation, Preparation, Feeding Methods, Feeding Rate and Frequency, Feeding Rate, Feeding Frequency, Feeding Tables, Feeding Devices, Hand-feeding or Manual Feeding, Automatic Feeders; Chapter 12: Effluent Treatment Systems, Types of Waste Materials in Aquaculture Effluents, Suspended Solids Nutrient and Bod, Pathogens, Treatability of Aquaculture Effluents, Load and Concentration of Pollutants, Pollution Potential of Effluents, Comparison of Effluents from Different Culture Systems, Intensive Aquaculture Systems, Semi-intensive Aquaculture System, Effluent Standards and Regulations, Effluents Standards, Guidelines and Codes of Conduct, Codes of Practice, Farm Effluents, Site Characteristics for Discharge Regulations, General Regulations of Coasta Farm, Effluent Treatment Practices, Treatment Technologies in Use, Solids Removal from the Pond Bottons, Solids Removal by Sedimentation Ponds, Solids Removal by Filtration, Solids Removal in Cage Farms, Biological Treatment, Sludge Treatment, Effluent Treatment in Shrimp Farming Systems, Effluent Treatment Scheme of Aquaculture Authority of India, Environment-Friendly Scheme for Intensive Farming, Closed-Recirculating Shrimp Farming; Chapter 13: Solids Removal, Screening, Types of Screens, Typical Design Characteristics and Data, Mechanical Filtration, Types of Filters, Gravity Filters, Rapid Filters, Diatomaceous Earth Filter, Filtration Process, Solids Removal Mechanisms, Mathematical Analysis, Computation of Head-loss, Filtration Process Variables, Sedimentation of Solids, Types of Settling, Types of Sedimentation Tanks or Basins, Mathematical Analysis of Settling, Settling Velocity Analysis, Removal Efficiency of a Basin; Chapter 14: Biological Filtration, Principal of Ammonia Removal by Nitrification, Organisms, Reactions, Environmental Factors Affecting Nitrification Rate, Ammonia Concentration, Dissolved Oxygen Concentration, Temperature Changes, pH Changes, Effect of Minerals and Chemicals, Filter Media Types, Filter Media Types, Filter Design, Filter Configuration, Submerged Filters, Trickling Filters, Rotating Meadia Filters, Operating Parameters, Flow Distribution, Hydraulic Loading, Duty Cycle, Comparison of Existing Designs of Biofilters, Filter Design Procedure, Ammonia Mass Balance, Nitrate-Nitrogen Mass balance, DO Mass Balance, DO Mass Balance in Biofilter; Chapter 15: Disinfection, Methods of Disinfection, Chlorination Process, Forms of Chlorine, Chemistry of Chlorination, Disadvantages of Chlorination, Chlorine Removal, Chlorine Compounds Used in Practice, Potassium Permangante Treatment, Mechaisms and Kinetics of DisinfectionThe book describe the fundamental aspects water resources and water quality management, and environmental problems related to acquaculture in the Coastal related to aquaculture in the coastal areas.

Title:Water quality management for coastal aquaculture
Author:Sukumar Bandyopadhyay
Publisher:Daya Books - 2008-01-01


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